12.01.02 Lk. 10:1-16 (See also Mt. 11:20-24)
SEVENTY DISCIPLES SENT OUT
1 After this, the Lord appointed 70 others, and He sent them ahead of Him in pairs to every town and place where He Himself was about to go.
2 He told them: “The harvest is abundant, but the workers are few. Therefore, pray to the Lord of the harvest to send out workers into His harvest. 3 Now go; I’m sending you out like lambs among wolves. 4 Don’t carry a money-bag, traveling bag, or sandals; don’t greet anyone along the road. 5 Whatever house you enter, first say, ‘Peace to this household.’ 6 If a son of peace is there, your peace will rest on him; but if not, it will return to you. 7 Remain in the same house, eating and drinking what they offer, for the worker is worthy of his wages. Don’t be moving from house to house. 8 When you enter any town, and they welcome you, eat the things set before you. 9 Heal the sick who are there, and tell them, ‘The kingdom of God has come near you.’ 10 When you enter any town, and they don’t welcome you, go out into its streets and say, 11 ‘We are wiping off as a witness against you even the dust of your town that clings to our feet. Know this for certain: The kingdom of God has come near.’ 12 I tell you, on that day it will be more tolerable for Sodom than for that town.
13 “Woe to you, Chorazin! Woe to you, Bethsaida! For if the miracles that were done in you had been done in Tyre and Sidon, they would have repented long ago, sitting in sackcloth and ashes! 14 But it will be more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon at the judgment than for you. 15 And you, Capernaum, will you be exalted to heaven? No, you will go down to Hades! 16 Whoever listens to you listens to Me. Whoever rejects you rejects Me. And whoever rejects Me rejects the One who sent Me.”
“In pairs.” The concept of sending out disciples in pairs is a reflection upon “being yoked together” and “discipleship.” This creates a greater degree of self-confidence for those who work together. There are several interesting aspects to sending missionary teams in groups of two.
- These instructions underscore how Jesus fulfilled the Hebrew prophecies in every detail, because He repeated the legal requirement of double witness found in the Mosaic Law. Those who heard the gospel from His discipleship teams obviously had two witnesses to verify a rejection or acceptance of the message.
- In groups of two there are generally a leader and follower, a discipler and a disciple; a trainer and a trainee.
- In terms of spiritual combat, according to Moses (Deut. 32:30), one person could put a thousand to flight, but two people could put ten thousand to flight. When two people work together the spiritual dynamics of ministry increases exponentially.
“The harvest is abundant.” The same words were spoken by Jesus to the disciples after the encounter with the Samaritan woman (Jn. 4). The compassion of Jesus for the lost never failed, regardless of the social and ethnic hostilities.
“Do not take a money-bag, traveling bag, or sandals.” It has been suggested that the reason Jesus gave these instructions was because He wanted to impress the urgency of the mission and saturate the land with His message. While that may have been true, there was a more important reason – one pertaining to identification. At this time itinerant stoic philosophers were going from village to village teaching their philosophies. They wore only blankets and left their hair grow which supposedly reflected divine philosophy and the achievement of the higher life of self-discipline and sanctity. They not only attempted to gain converts, but also tried to live off the good graces of their hosts for as long as possible. Since they frequently begged for money or food, their money bags became known as “beggar bags,” which happened to be identical to shepherd’s bags. One Jewish scholar was a bit more polite in his description and called it an “alms-bag.” Little wonder then, that Jesus did not want His disciples to have the appearance of the Stoics.
A point of interest might be that a wallet or scrips was a leather pouch that shepherds hung around their necks. Jewish men often wore them when traveling. The Roman satirist, Juvenal, (c. late 1st century A.D.) said that a wallet or basket was a characteristic of the Jews.
[To the] Jews who possess a basket and a truss of hay for all their furnishings.
Juvenal, Satire 3:14
The difficulty of this passage lies in the fact that other passages indicate a worker is worthy of his hire (salary; v. 7) or that one should take a purse or bag. The explanation is that at this point in time, Jesus was not giving His disciples commandments for life, but instruction for particular situation.
As stated previously, the core issue is that it was difficult for the disciples to understand that to be a follower of Jesus they had to surrender themselves unconditionally to the will of God. Furthermore, they had to devote themselves unconditionally to the work of the Kingdom without any lingering connections to the world they left behind. In essence, His command for them not to take anything along was a physical picture of their future spiritual ministry. This was the same message given when Jesus said “let the dead bury the dead” (Lk. 9:59-62).
“If a son of peace is there.” This Hebraism refers to the head of the household – the father or husband, as well as his attitude. If he did not have a hospitable spirit, he was not a son of peace.
“The worker is worthy of his wages.” This phrase (Lk. 10:7) is significant for reasons of the historical development of theology, rather than history or culture. During the years A.D. 63-65, after the events of Acts 28, the Apostle Paul wrote his first letter to Timothy. In that letter, he combined this phrase with Deuteronomy 25:4 that reads “do not muzzle an ox while it is treading out grain.” The early church fathers followed the same principle for entertaining strangers. Itinerant preachers and prophets were not to ask for food or salary from their hosts, yet Jesus told His disciples they should willingly accept whatever is given to them. This passage from the Didache is therefore, insightful.
Let every apostle who comes to you be received as of the Lord. He shall stay one day, or, if need be, another day too. If he stays three days he is a false prophet. When the apostle leaves, let him receive nothing but enough bread to see him through until he finds lodging. If he asks for money he is a false prophet.
Do not treat any prophet who speaks in the Spirit, and do not judge him, for all sins will be forgiven, but this sin will not be forgiven. Not everyone who speaks in the Spirit is a prophet but only the one whose behavior is the Lord’s. So the false prophet and the prophet will be recognized by their behavior.
You shall not listen to anyone who says in the Spirit, “Give me money or something,” but if he is asking that something be given for others who are in need, let no one judge him.
“Heal the sick.” Healing the sick and preaching the message of the Kingdom of God were constantly linked together. This was the mission of both Jesus and the disciples (Lk. 9:1-2, 11).
“On that day it will be more tolerable for Sodom.” The fiery destruction (Greek: phthora) of that ancient city, as well as Gomorrah (Gen. 19:24-29), stood as a monumental warning for those who purposefully ignored God’s warning for repentance. Sodom and Gomorrah were two of five ancient cities that were well known for their sexual sins, especially the sin of homosexuality. They did not see Jesus perform miracles or hear His teachings, but could they have had this opportunity, they would have repented. Even though they did not hear specific laws of God, they should have obeyed common law concerning the matters of right and wrong. But they didn’t. So they will be punished, but their punishment will not be as great as for those who heard God’s laws and rejected them. This account shows that there are various degrees of punishment in the eternal hell.
However, the three villages along the northern edge of the Sea of Galilee did see and hear Jesus, and still rejected Him. When they did, Jesus pronounced judgment upon them by saying, “Woe to you, Chorizim . . . Bethsaida . . . Capernaum.” The phrase woe which in Greek is ouai and refers to both anger and sorrow is an expression of sorrowful pity. The term is a dirge; a lament for the dead. Furthermore, the word has a sympathetic tone, not an angry or furious tone. His statement, “It will be more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon at the judgment than for you”, clearly illustrates that there are degrees of punishment in hell.
Clearly, Jesus was extremely upset with these three communities. As is typical throughout the Bible, God’s judgment is greatest against those who know right but choose to do wrong. These villages had witnessed multiple miracles and frequently heard His sermons, yet rejected His message. The wicked cities of Sidon and Tyre, on the other hand, did not hear the message of our Lord and would be judged in accordance with the little they knew – but judgment eventually came. Those who sin horribly will suffer horribly. Apparently the good news of Jesus had reached those two cities, because people traveled from there to Galilee to hear Jesus preach (Lk. 6:17).
It is noteworthy to briefly examine “Tyre and Sidon” because these two Canaanite cities were significant in Israel’s history; history that was rather vivid to the audience of Jesus. They had three historical points to consider:
- In Joshua’s time, the Canaanites were the occupants of the Promised Land, who were eventually defeated by the incoming Israelite occupiers.
- However, in the days of King David, Hiram, the king of Tyre was on good terms with David and Solomon.
- But one of the great arch-enemies of the Jewish people was Queen Jezebel, who married King Ahab of Israel (ten northern tribes). She promoted the gods of Tyre and Sidon known as Baal and Ashtoreth (1 Kgs. 17-22). Both cities and the communities around them were known for their immorality, wealth, and corruption.
Therefore, when Jesus compared Chorizim, Bethsaida, and Capernaum as being worse than Sodom, Tyre, and Sidon, He most certainly burned everyone’s ear. Since He spoke firmly and with authority, His words made a powerful impact – one that stunned the religious leaders because they believed they were secure with God since they were “His chosen people.” But Jesus thought otherwise.
The changes in the social-political environment eventually led to the fulfillment of the prophetic curse. When the Zealots began the Second Revolt in A.D. 65, the Fifth Legion was brought in by the Emperor Titus to strengthen the Tenth Legion that was stationed in Damascus and had dominated the region for decades. Together they began a systematic devastation of the country, one village; one community after another. Chorizim and Bethsaida were both destroyed but Chorizim was rebuilt. It continued to grow to approximately 80 acres in size, but died with the Muslim conquest in 636. However, at the end of the fourth century, the church father Eusebius said that it was a destroyed village. This would appear to be in conflict with other historical sources, except that over the centuries many villages and cities that were destroyed were rebuilt only to be destroyed again. Nonetheless, the Muslim conquest ended village life in this community.
Capernaum was also destroyed by the Tenth Legion, but it too was rebuilt and continued to be a thriving community for both Christians and Jews. It was severely damaged in the earthquake of 363 (estimated 7.0 magnitude on the Richter scale) and was immediately rebuilt. Later, as a result of the Islamic invasion of 636 – six centuries after Jesus – a number of Arabs became residents of the prosperous village. By then many must have questioned the prophetic prediction by Jesus. However, His words were finally fulfilled on January 18, 749, when a destructive earthquake (estimated 6.6 magnitude on the Richter scale), leveled the village and it was never occupied again. The words of Jesus for each village were fulfilled to the last detail in due time – His time. Bethsaida was destroyed by the Romans in A.D. 65, and Chorizim was destroyed centuries later in the 636 during the Islamic conquest.
Anyone in deep mourning wore a sackcloth garment, placed ashes or dirt on the forehead, sat in the shade and wailed bitterly. Ashes were sometimes from animal sacrifices, but regardless from the source, ashes, sackcloth, and sometimes torn clothing were signs of deep grief. It was and still is common practice to let the emotions be expressed openly and loudly. Sackcloth was a rough and uncomfortable garment made from the hair of goats or camels, and at times worn next to the skin. Some scholars believe this coarse material was also used to make fishnets as well as tents and grain sacks (Gen. 42:25; Josh 9:4). The Greek poet Homer wrote in his famous Iliad that when Achilles heard of the death of Patroclus, he grasped in both hands…
The ashes of the hearth, he showered them over his head and soiled with them his noble face.
Homer, The Iliad 18.23
Later in Homer’s story, another character by the name of Priam, mourned for the death of Hector and,
Sat with a cloak wrapped around him and dust strewn on his head and neck, which, when he rolled upon the earth, he had gathered with his hands.
Homer, The Iliad 24:162-65
Clearly, the custom of mourning in sackcloth and ashes was not unique to the Jews. On the other hand, stifling with ashes was a Persian mode of punishment as recorded in Maccabees 13:5-7. The Christian tradition of ashes applied to the believer’s forehead is rooted in the mourning tradition. Ash Wednesday is the name given to the first day of the Lent season – prior to Easter. The earliest Christian writings date to the 9th or 10th century Europe when Christians wore sackcloth and placed ashes on themselves as a sign of mourning and repentance of sins during the Lenten season.
12.01.02.Q1 Did Jesus send out 70 or 72 disciples (Lk. 1:1-16 vs. Mt. 11:20-24; see also 12.01.02.Q3)?
There is an apparent discrepancy among biblical manuscripts concerning the number of disciples who were sent out on the short-term missionary journey. Among the translations, the King James Version reads 70, while others such as the New International Version of 1984, read 72. Why the numerical difference?
The answer is hidden in the third century (B.C.) Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible; although not of any particular verse. At that time the Jewish people in Egypt were confronted with the challenges of a youthful generation that was speaking Greek and losing the Hebrew language. So, according to tradition or legend, the elders had 72 scholars translate the Hebrew Bible into Greek. In the course of time, the translation became known as the “Septuagint,’ meaning 70 and later represented by the Roman numeral symbol “LXX.” The number 72 had simply changed to 70 for conversational use; a type of verbal shorthand. Furthermore, in good Jewish tradition, the names of the translators were preserved as well. The phrase did not have a literal meaning, but became a figure of speech. The same change may have occurred in regard to the number of missionaries who were sent out by Jesus. It is noteworthy that while the Sanhedrin has 70 members, the Council at Jamnia had 72 members, also known as elders.
12.01.02.A. THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE OF BETHSAIDA. A trail goes through the active archaeological site of what a growing number of archaeologists believe is Bethsaida (this writer disagrees). The sand bags around the excavation site reduce rain damage during the winter months when there is no archaeological activity. While the date of the founding of the village is unknown, archaeologists have uncovered the foundations of a city wall dated to the Assyrian conquest. The words of Jesus concerning its demise were fulfilled when the Romans destroyed it in during the First Revolt (A.D. 66-70). It was never rebuilt. Photographed in 2005 by the author.
12.01.02.Q2 What are the differences among the terms “Hell, Hades,” and “Gehenna?”
Jesus spoke more of hell then He did of heaven which is why the words “hell, Hades,” and “Gehenna” are found numerous times within the gospels. The New Testament provides a clear definition of hell as an eternal lake of fire (literally, the hell of fire), but the terms “Hades” and “Gehenna” are somewhat ambiguous. Jesus said that the village of Capernaum would be sent down to Hades (Mt. 11:23; Lk. 10:15), an imagery that is synonymous with the Old Testament rendering of “Sheol” (e.g., Amos 9:2; Ps. 139:8). The judgment that comes after time spent in Hades apparently will not be in Hades, but in another place called hell. In the parable of the rich man and Lazarus, the rich man is in torment in Hades, which implies that Hades is hell (Lk. 16:19-31). However, the section of Hades that is a place of torment in the earth is certainly miserable and may seem like hell, but the lake of fire of hell is far worse.
Hades has two distinct areas:
- One area is a place of torment, where the wicked are temporarily held until their final judgment and ultimate damnation in the more painful eternity of hell.
- The other area was a holding area for the saints who died before Jesus ascended to heaven. The souls of the Old Testament saints, held captive in Hades, were freed by Jesus and taken to heaven during the time that His body was dead in the tomb. Previously, their sins were merely covered by Old Testament sacrifices and so, they could not enter heaven until Jesus removed their sins on the cross. Only by the atoning blood of Jesus could Old Testament saints enter eternal glory. This area was also referred to by Jesus as “Paradise” when the thief on the cross believed in Him.
With two distinct areas in Hades, separated by a great divide, the rich man could communicate with Lazarus. This conversation would have been impossible if he were in hell and Lazarus in heaven. When Jesus died He went to Hades, as indicated by Peter in Acts (2:25-31), in which he quoted Psalm 16:8-11. The word “grave” means “Hades” and this narrative proves that Jesus not only was there, but also did not remain there.
8 I keep the Lord in mind always.
Because He is at my right hand,
I will not be shaken.
9 Therefore my heart is glad
and my spirit rejoices;
my body also rests securely.
10 For You will not abandon me to Sheol;
You will not allow Your Faithful One see decay.
11 You reveal the path of life to me; in Your presence is abundant joy;
in Your right hand are eternal pleasures.
The eternal punishment, whether in the area reserved for the wicked in Hades or in hell, is often called “death” and, as such, is referred to four times in Revelation (1:18; 6:8; 20:13,14). In Revelation 20:14 John said that one day in the future, death and Hades would be thrown into the lake of fire (hell).
Also, the word “Gehenna” is used to describe a place of torment and eternal suffering. The name comes from the Valley of Hinnom, where supposedly, there was the city dump located in the modern Hinnom Valley along the southern or western side of the Old City of Jerusalem. The name “Gehenna” has three legendary sources, all from the Valley of Hinnom that is located along the southern and western sides of Jerusalem. The reasons for the name are as follows:
- It is where child sacrifice was once practiced (see below).
- It is where pottery kilns were located.
- It is where a trash heap burned continuously.
Obviously not all of these so-called sources of the name can be correct. The most popular seems to be the third one, and there are at least four reasons to argue against this interpretation.
- The residents of the city would never have placed a smoldering dump on the western side of the city, since the prevailing westerly winds would have blown the stench over them. Herod the Great had his palace along the western wall of the old city, right by the Jaffa Gate, and would have been the first to be smoked-out of his home. Furthermore, it is because of the prevailing westerly winds that a vast majority of cemeteries were located on the eastern side of cities and villages, to blow the stench of decaying bodies away from the communities. Visitors today are amazed at the thousands of graves located on the side of the Mount of Olives – just east of Jerusalem.
- The most significant argument against this theory is that ancient cities did not produce sufficient waste to have a burning dump. Almost everything was recycled, with the exception of pottery shards. Even manure was dried and used for cooking fuel or fertilizer.
- The burning rubbish dump theory is believed to have originated with Rabbi David Kimhi’s commentary on Psalm 27:13 around the year A.D. 1200. No Jewish or Christian literary works prior to Kimhi mentions it.
- While a rubbish dump has been found, there is no archaeological evidence to support the burning rubbish dump theory.
The second suggestion is that pottery kilns were in the Hinnom Valley west and south of the city. This is also highly unlikely for the same reason. Along the southern side is where the priests and other aristocrats had their palace homes. They most certainly would not have wanted to be near burning trash heaps or pottery kilns. King David had his palace along the southern side. Furthermore, no archaeological evidence has been uncovered in the Hinnom Valley to support this theory, nor is it mentioned in any Jewish writings.
Finally, the primary reason the Hebrew name Ge-Hinnom is derived from the Valley of Hinnom, that is where King Ahaz (2 Ch. 28:3; cf 2 Kg. 16:3) and King Manasseh (2 Ch. 33:6; cf 2 Kg. 21:6) sacrificed living babies to the pagan god, Molech (Jer. 32:35). This was the ultimate imagery – a picture of hell – of pain, agony, and death by ancient writers. Neither the Jewish nor the gospel writers could have conceived of anything worse than this era of incredible shame in Jewish history. Little wonder it is associated with those damned to hell by apocalyptic and New Testament writers.
Hell is a real place that is given several descriptions such as being a fiery furnace (Mt. 13:42), a lake of fire (Rev. 19:20), a place of everlasting torment (2 Pet. 2:4), and a place of eternal fire (Jude 7). Jesus and the New Testament writers were dynamic on this issue and added that it is reserved for Satan and his angels as well as for those who reject Christ. It is that vast lake of fire where death will consume the wicked forever. These appear to be contradictory terms. The modern mind thinks of death as a distinctive ending point where life ceases to function. But in Hebraic thinking the continuous agony is so immense that it is called “death,” while the final breath never comes.
The rejection imagery and its association with eternal punishment with clearly expressed on both the Old and New Testament, as well as in Jewish literature. Eternal punishment is evident in Matthew 5:22 and 18:9 and Mark 9:43-44 say hell as a place of unquenchable fire, as does Matthew 25:41. The phrase “weeping and gnashing of teeth” occurs seven times in the gospels. The phrase “outer darkness” occurs three times (Mt. 8:12; 22:13, and 25:30) and is also referred to in 1 Enoch 102:8. Inter-Testament literature frequently mentions hell and fire together. The “casting out” judgment imagery of Matthew 22:13 is also found in 1 Enoch 10:4. Likewise the term “furnace of fire” is found in the Parables of the Wheat and Tares (Mt. 13:42) and the Parable of the Dragnet (Mt. 13:50). This imagery is not only for those who reject Christ, but is also reserved for those who claim to be followers of Jesus, but have never truly committed themselves to His lordship.
The Greek word abyssos has been translated to mean “bottomless” and is found in the LXX translation of Genesis 1:2. It also occurs six times in John’s Revelation (9:1-2, 11; 11:7; 17:8; 20:1, 3) where it is described as the place of endless torment and punishment. But this term was also used to refer to the bottom of the Sea of Galilee where the Gentiles believed the demons lived. That was a cultural interpretation and not a theological one.
The term sheol has on occasion been incorrectly translated as hell. The Old Testament concept of sheol is not a place of torment, but a land of shades, a shadowy and joyless, ghostly place. The New Testament understanding of heaven and hell is not related to sheol, and there is hardly any concept of eternal life in the Hebrew Bible.
12.01.02.Q3 Did the 70 or 72 disciples go to Jewish or Gentile homes (Lk. 1:1-16. Mt. 11:20-24; see 12.01.02.Q1)?
Some scholars have said that the 72 (or 70) went to Jewish communities, while others believe they went to the hated Samaritans and Greeks in the Decapolis cities. If they went to non-Jewish homes, they would have eaten non-kosher meals with their hosts. That alone would have been a major theological adjustment at this time. The rules concerning kosher foods do not appear to relax until the book of Acts. So therefore, it is the opinion of this writer that they probably went to Jewish homes, especially since their journey appears to have been several days in length. And if they went to Gentile communities, they probably stayed in Jewish homes there.
. Deut. 17:6; 19:15; Gilbrant, “Luke” 317.
. See also comment on Mt. 18:19-20.
. Hatch, The Influence of Greek Ideas and Usages. 166.
. Angel, “Bag, Box.” 1:142-43.
. See Josephus, Antiquities 8.7.3 (185).
. Vine, “Wallet.” Vine’s Complete Expository Dictionary. 2:665.
. http://ancienthistory.about.com/gi/o.htm?zi=1/XJ&zTi=1&sdn=ancienthistory&cdn=education&tm=131&f=00&su=p284.13.342.ip_&tt=2&bt=0&bts=0&zu=http%3A//www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/juv-sat3lat.html Retrieved June 5, 2012. Geikie, The Life and Words. 2:631. See also Juvenal, Satire 6:542.
. The Didache is a book on church order that was written within a century of the life of Jesus. For more information, see 02.02.08.
. Barclay, “Destruction.” Jesus. 264.
. Lang, Know the Words of Jesus. 182.
. Smith, Augsburg Commentary on the New Testament: Matthew. 157, 274.
. Barclay, “Matthew.” 2:12-13.
. Isa. 23; Jer. 25:22; 47:4; Ezek. 26:3-7; 28:12-22.
. http://israel-tourguide.info/2011/01/10/earthquakes-history-archaeology/. See also http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/content/31/8/665.abstract and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/749_Galilee_earthquake Retrieved on August 25, 2014.
. See 1 Sam. 4:12; 2 Sam 1:2; 13:19; Job 2:12; Ezek. 17:30; Rev. 18:19 and Judith 4:114-15.
. Esth. 4:1; 1 Kgs. 21:27; See also 2 Kgs. 6:30; Job 16:15.
. Vine, “Ashes.” Vine’s Complete Expository Dictionary. 2:39.
. Vincent, Word Studies in the New Testament. 1:351.
. See Septuagint in 02.02.25.
. B. S. J. Isserlin of the University of Leeds has an article titled The Names of the 72 Translators of the Septuagint based upon the Pseudepigraphic Letter by Aristeas (47-50) to his brother Philocrates written in the 2nd century B.C. It was later repeated by Philo of Alexandria as well as Josephus in Antiquities 12.2.7 (57). The article by Isserlin is available at https://www.jtsa.edu/Documents/pagedocs/JANES/1973%205/Isserlin5.pdf Retrieved June 29, 2015.
. Lightfoot, A Commentary on the New Testament from the Talmud and Hebraica. 3:94; For more information on the Septuagint, see 02.02.25.
. See also 08.01.05.
. For “Gehenna,” see 02.03.09; 08.01.05 and 10.01.06. For “Hades,” see 08.01.05; 09.01.05; 10.01.29; 12.01.02; 12.03.09 and 18.01.01. For “Hell,” see 08.01.05; 09.02.04; 10.01.29; 12.01.02; 12.03.09; 13.05.02; 15.03.12; 16.01.18; 17.02.02; 18.01.01 and 18.02.01.
. Vincent, Word Studies in the New Testament. 1:40.
. Wuest, Wuest’s Word Studies. 46.
. Mt. 11:23; Lk. 10:15; Bietenhard, “Hell, Abyss, Hades, Gehenna, Lower Regions.” 2:07.
. The topics of Gehenna, Hades, and Hell have been the subject of discussions for many theologians, and there are no shortages of interpretations. However, all agree that it is not a place where one wants to be for a moment, much less forever.
. Lang, Know the Words of Jesus. 41; Miethe, The Compact Dictionary of Doctrinal Words. 97.
. Bass, “Hell.” 6:809-10; Scharen, “Gehenna in the Synopics.” 324-337.
. For further study, see Pagenkemper, “Rejection Imagery in the Synoptic Parables.” 179-198.
. Old Testament prophets who spoke of a final judgment were Isaiah (17:11) and Joel (3:13). Two other prophets who made similar statements concerning Babylon and Ephraim were Jeremiah (51:33) and Hosea (6:11).
. For example, see 1 Enoch 1:18, 23-24, 38, 71-72, 81, 84, 88; 2 Enoch 1:118-19, 188; Sibyliline Oracles 1:323-24, 333, 385, 409, 469, 471.
. Mt. 8:12; 13:42, 50; 22:13; 24:51; 25:30, and Lk. 13:28.
. In the Inter-Testamental book of Enoch, the writer said that the abyss was the prison for fallen spirits/angels (10:4ff; 18:11ff). The writer of Jubilees said likewise in 5:6ff.
. Bietenhard, “Hell, Abyss, Hades, Gehenna, Lower Regions.” 2:205.
. Barclay, “John.” 2:91-92.