06.03.08 Mk. 1:40-45 (See also Mt. 8:1-4; Lk. 5:12-16) Galilee area.
THE LEPER IS HEALED – A MESSIANIC MIRACLE
40 Then a man with a serious skin disease came to Him and, on his knees, begged Him: “If You are willing, You can make me clean.”
41 Moved with compassion, Jesus reached out His hand and touched him. “I am willing,” He told him. “Be made clean.” 42 Immediately the disease left him, and he was healed. 43 Then He sternly warned him and sent him away at once, 44 telling him, “See that you say nothing to anyone; but go and show yourself to the priest, and offer what Moses prescribed for your cleansing, as a testimony to them.” 45 Yet he went out and began to proclaim it widely and to spread the news, with the result that Jesus could no longer enter a town openly. But He was out in deserted places, and they would come to Him from everywhere.
To understand the depth of meaning of this passage, some cultural background must be discussed first. That perspective then highlights both the miracle and monumental announcement. The severity of leprosy, known as tsaraath in Hebrew, in the biblical period seems to have a range of opinions among scholars. Some have said that it was merely a skin disease while others have given it horrific descriptions. The fact is that both are correct and need to be discussed.
The leprosy described in Leviticus 13:4 and 13, appears to be a form of psoriasis that covers the skin with white scales. In verse 30 the symptom of skin itch is associated with it. Those who have said that leprosy was merely one of several minor skin diseases (according to modern medical standards) generally refer to this condition. However, later in Leviticus a different and deadly form of leprosy is described, in fact, there are three kinds of leprosy which are only briefly described below in modern medical terms.
- Nodular or tubercular leprosy begins as joint pains which are followed by discolored patches on the back. On those skin areas small pink nodules form which then turn brown or black. The patches spread and eventually the face becomes disfigured. The nodules enlarge and emit a foul odor and the body becomes increasingly crippled. After about nine years of decline, life ends with mental decay, a coma and death.
- Anaesthetic leprosy is similar to the nodular leprosy in its early stages but all sensation is lost in the infected area. The sufferer may not realize that he has contracted the disease until an injury occurs of which he has no pain. In the course of the disease, muscles waste away and fingers and toes become grossly distorted and eventually a foot or hand may literally fall off. The disease may take up to three decades until death comes.
- The third kind is a combination of nodular and anaesthetic leprosy. This may have been the most common form of the dreaded disease. In its worst form, the leper had to live outside the community (Lev. 13:45) in both Israel and Gentile regions. But in Jewish communities some lepers could attend the synagogue although they had to be seated in a secluded area. But they were not permitted to enter homes or a walled city. The Romans, on the other hand, had their famous leper colonies where the “living dead” eventually died with no care for their spiritual life.
However, the ancients described the three kinds of leprosy in simpler forms:
- Clear white
- Dull white
The physician said in Luke 5:38 that the man was full of disease; the word full being used in other phrases such as veins being full of blood or the ears full of noise. Those with this condition were known as the “living dead.” What Luke identified as full of (leprosy) disease is today commonly referred to as Hansen’s Disease.
The mystery of leprosy is why Moses dedicated two entire chapters – Leviticus 13 and 14 to the subject as well as the declaration of cleansing, when no Jewish person was ever healed of the disease. As will be shown below, people would ask their rabbi this question and his response would be that he did not know, but when the messiah comes, he will know and will heal lepers. In the meantime, there were only two healings of lepers recorded in the Old Testament.
- Miriam received her healing before Moses wrote the Torah and
- The Syrian military commander, Naaman, was not even a Jew but was healed by the Jewish prophet Elijah (2 Kg. 5:1).
Since Miriam received her leprosy as a result of a sin, it was believed that anyone with the disease received it for the same reason. Since no one was ever healed of leprosy, by the first century it was believed that the disease was a visible sign of inner corruption that was so bad that God brought forth His judgment. It was also believed that only the Messiah would be able to heal anyone anflicted with the deadly disease – a Messianic Miracle or Messianic Sign. Therefore, when Jesus healed the man and told him to be examined by the priests, it caused an immediate sensation throughout all religious circles. To the leaders of all religious sects, the healing of a leper revealed that the m/Messiah had come.
However, there are two cases where persons with leprosy are reported to have performed normal daily tasks, in spite of the disease. Notice the following:
- Naaman commanded the Syrian army (2 Kg. 5:1). While he was healed by the prophet Elijah, the fact remains that he functioned as a commander and was not isolated from other people.
- Gehazi, with his leprosy that never should be cleansed (2 Kg. 5:27), he spoke with the king of apostate Israel (2 Kg. 8:4-5). A leper who has been healed is often not called “healed,” but “cleansed” because the disease has always been symbolic of sin.
Both lepers appear to have been healed while the disease was in the early stages. The most common opinion is that lepers were not permitted to enter towns or be in the company of other people; that theirs was a life of misery and loneliness. Just as the Jews had severe restrictions on the social functions and movements of anyone with the dreaded disease, so did the people of other cultures.
However, depending on the severity of the disease, some lepers were permitted to live in communities and attend the synagogue services. When in public, they had to hide their faces and cry out “unclean, unclean” whenever approaching anyone (Lev. 13:45). Severe cases were so fatal, that many people counted them as dead. For those lepers who were somewhat more fortunate, Jewish leaders even constructed a small chamber, called a Mechitsah, within the synagogue about six or eight feet wide, so they could be part of the service yet remain separated from the crowd.
In other cases, the leper was considered to be as one who had died, and as such was shut out of the community. This law was so strictly enforced that even Miriam, the sister of Moses, was not exempted from it (Num. 12:12-14) nor was King Uzziah. It was believed that lepers, along with others who were seriously ill, had their disease because of sin in their lives or in that of their parents. This opinion is found in the writings of a Persian historian about 484 B.C.
The citizen who has leprosy or the “white sickness” may not come into a town or consort with other Persians. They say that he was so afflicted because he has sinned in some way against the sun (god).
Herodotus, The Histories 1.138
06.03.08.Q1 What is the difference between a leper being cleansed and being healed.
Leprosy was and still is a strange disease. It is the name of a broad range of abnormalities from skin afflictions to the rotting of the body while the victim is still alive. According to one Hebraic scholar, when a leper was purified, he was not healed of his disease, but the poison of the disease was removed and he was no longer contagious to other people. The leper was then restored to the congregation. An example is such a cleansed person was Gehazi, the servant of Elisha who was a life-long leper but still a servant to the king (2 Kgs. 8:5).
06.03.08.A. EGERTON PAPYRUS 2 FRAGMENTS. Fragments of the Egerton Papyrus 2, dated to no later than A.D. 150, are probably from a non-canonical gospel and contain portions of Matthew 8:2-3, Mark 1:40-42 and Luke 5:12-13. It is evidence of the early recorded events of the life of Jesus. It is considered to be neither heretical nor Gnostic, and is probably the oldest non-canonical text yet discovered. Photograph courtesy of the Trustees of the British Museum.
06.03.08.Q2 Why did Jesus heal the man, but not declare forgiveness of his sins?
This is a classic example of where understanding rabbinic writings and the Jewish culture resolves misunderstandings. Long-term diseases such as leprosy, as well as childlessness, were considered to be divine punishment; and victims and childless couples lived their entire lives with hopelessness, believing God had condemned them. Consequently, the suffering people usually received little or no pity or comfort from the religious establishment. When a person with severe leprosy brought his offering to the synagogue or temple, he was not permitted to enter it, but someone had to present his gift for him, which, according to the Oral Law, was a sin offering. Therefore, when Jesus healed the man of his leprosy, everyone realized that his sins must have been forgiven. Jesus did not have to declare, “Your sins are forgiven.” It was understood. This understanding was part of the cultural context in which Jesus ministered. An example has been preserved in the Talmud.
Rabbi Alexandri said in the name of Rabbi Hiyya ben Abba: “A sick man does not recover from his sickness until all his sins are forgiven him, as it is written, ‘Who forgives all your iniquities; who heals all your diseases’” (Ps. 103:3).
Babylonian Talmud, Nedarim 41a
The relationship between illness and the forgiveness of sins was evidently a firm belief among pagan people as well. In the second century B.C., King Nabunai of Babylon found himself with an ulcer and he asked a Jew named Nabonidus to pray for his healing. These words of the king after the prayer of healing were found on an ancient papyrus, and are, in part, as follows:
I was afflicted with an evil ulcer for seven years…and an exorcist pardoned my sins. He was a Jew from among the [children of the exile of Judah, and he said], “Recount this in writing to [glorify and exalt] the name of the Most High God.”
Dead Sea Scroll, The Prayer of Nabonidus 4QPrNab
Healing was associated with the forgiveness of sins. The actions of Jesus were clearly understood by all observers, and by those who heard of these miraculous accounts. To those lepers known as the “living dead,” and to the witnesses who saw these lepers being healed, Jesus demonstrated that He had power over sickness and death. So when Jesus “touched him”(Mk. 1:41) that was a phenomenal event because touching a leper was a violation of the Law. It made a person who touched the leper unclean and required him to undergo ceremonial cleansing. Jesus knew the Law, yet He touched and healed him and obviously ignored the ceremonial cleansing. This is more significant in the Greek language of Luke, who said the man was full of leprosy, meaning that he was near the end of his life. There was no question of his illness and, there was no question that if there ever was a time not to touch a leper, this was it! Hence, this act was also a profound illustration that the spirit of the law was better than sacrifice. In touching the untouchable, Jesus taught His disciples a lesson of boldness, faith, and humility; and that they were to despise no one, but show compassion and bring healing to everyone.
Jesus performed one of the greatest miracles in Jewish history, and when the disciples and everyone else was ready to advertise it to the world, He said, “Say nothing to anyone” (Mk. 1:44). He did not want the sensation; His primary challenge was to convince the Jews that He was their Messiah, and that He was radically different from their pre-conceived ideas of a messiah (small “m”). Possible reasons for instructing the healed person to keep silent are as follows.
- To make a public announcement would probably have resulted in a rejection by the Jews, and had political overtones that He avoided. He was not about to be anyone’s political-messiah.
- Neither did Jesus want to be known as a mystic or miracle worker, as was Honi in the previous century. Jesus was far more interested in preaching the Kingdom of God than doing miracles, although His miracles, combined with His teachings, pointed to His Messiahship and the Kingdom message.
- The Jewish leaders had their own mystical formulas for healing various kinds of ailments. Jesus was not interested in getting involved in a discussion of healing methodologies, but only on proclaiming the Kingdom of God.
- Possibly the most important reason is that Jesus directed the former leper to follow biblical protocol. He did not want him to tell anyone until he first went to present himself to the priest (see below), that the priest might ascertain if indeed the leprosy was indeed cleansed according to the Law of Moses (Lev. 19:3). His testimony in the temple would then be visible proof to the religious leaders that a Messianic Miracle or Sign had been performed, and that the Messiah had arrived.
“Show yourself to the priest, and offer what Moses prescribed for your cleansing, as a testimony to them.” This command to the healed leper was significant for four reasons.
- Jesus obeyed the Old Testament laws because He lived to fulfill the Old Testament covenant. This covenant required the former leper to present himself to the priest to be officially pronounced healed. In essence, he was to follow the rules set forth by Moses.
- By being obedient to this Mosaic Law, the priests could not ignore what Jesus was doing in the countryside. The priests and Sanhedrin could not ignore this healing because, as priests, they were required to investigate the claim and make a final declaration that the man was no longer a leper. It forced them to admit that Jesus had some type of divine strength and authority, a thought that was increasingly difficult for them to deny.
- The healed leper had to have incredible faith in his healing, because, if he entered the temple with the disease, he would have received the severe punishment of “forty lashes minus one.”
- The purpose of the “testimony to them” was not only to demonstrate to the religious leaders that Jesus obeyed the Mosaic laws, but that He was also the One who could perform the expected “messianic miracles.” The term “testimony to them” had legal implications concerning the truthfulness of the event.
Victims of the disease were social outcasts of the worst kind, usually suffering from condemnation and starvation, unless the family helped them. The healing not only saved the life of the leper but also restored his family’s reputation. In the meantime, the good news of Jesus healing the sick was exploding.
After the healed lepers were verified by the temple priests to be “clean” (meaning healed), the Sadducees realized they had to take Jesus seriously. The cleansing of this leper came by the spoken word of Jesus. The religious leaders, however, also had their so-called cleansing method, which at best is interesting and was hardly effective. The Mishnah has preserved their unusual healing formula, which appears to have some influences from neighboring cultures:
How did they cleanse the leper? He brought a new earthenware flask and put therein a quarter-log of living water; and he brought two birds that had lived in freedom. The priest slaughtered one of them over the earthenware vessel and over the living water, and dug a hole and buried it in his presence. He took cedar wood and hyssop and scarlet wool and bound them together with the ends of the strip (of wool); and brought near to them the tips of the wings and the tip of the tail of the second bird; and dipped them (in the blood of the slaughtered bird) and sprinkled (the blood) seven times on the back of the leper’s back; and some say, also on his forehead. So likewise they used to sprinkle the lintel of the house from the outside. He then came to set free the living bird.
Mishnah, Tohoroth 14:1
The healing performed by Jesus not only demonstrated His divinity over diseases, but also demonstrated that His power was far superior to the Jewish superstition of birds, hyssop, scarlet wool and whatever else they deemed necessary to heal a person. The healing by Jesus struck a powerful blow to their healing theology. Most certainly, they had to question how a man (Jesus) could have more power than their cultic ritual. Ancient people did not realize that diseases and illnesses generally occur because we live in a fallen world. Jesus, by healing the leper, demonstrated under no uncertain terms, that He was the Messiah. When the lepers went to the priests to have their cleansing (or healing) verified, the priest became painfully aware that the Messiah had arrived. When they heard that the miracle-worker was Jesus, the older priests may have remembered the twelve year old boy who once came to the temple and stunned them with questions.
“Jesus could no longer enter a town openly.” This does not mean that His divine power was limited, but difficulties stood in the way, especially since His popularity was growing exponentially. Some scholars have suggested that He may even have been excommunicated from some local synagogues, since He could no longer teach in them. If that is true, then the leaders of those synagogues probably forbade Jesus to enter due to pressure from the leading Pharisees in Jerusalem.
06.03.08.Q3 What were the three “messianic miracles” that first century Jews believed the messiah would perform?
The rabbis were convinced that the messiah would perform three kinds of miracles that would confirm His messiahship. Those anticipated “messianic miracles” were:
- Healing a Jewish leper. Moses dedicated two chapters in Leviticus (13, 14) to the healing of a leper, but since then, not a single Jewish person had ever been healed of this dreaded disease. As a result, the rabbis said that when the messiah comes, he will heal them. Moses said that when a Jewish person with leprosy was healed, he or she was required to go immediately to the temple priests to be declared “clean.” In this case, the Jewish high priest was Caiaphas but the name of the Samaritan high priest is unknown. Regardless, the ten miracles, a perfect number as related to the Ten Commandments, made a profound impact on the people and religious leaders.
- The casting out of demons from someone who could not speak. Some translations refer to a mute person (Gk. alalos 216 or aphonos 880) while the King James Version uses the old English word “dumb.” There was a 3-step protocol to an exorcism as follows:
a. Ask the demon for his name, as it would speak through the possessed person.
b.Wait for the demon to give its name. If no response, command an answer.
c. Command the demon by name to leave by using the name of a more powerful authority (i.e. god).
However, if the possessed person could not speak or hear, there was no way anyone could cast out the evil spirit. Therefore, it was concluded that only the messiah would be able to cast demons out of a “deaf and dumb” person, meaning a person who could not speak or hear. This was significant because in various Inter-Testamental Jewish writings, the advent of the Messiah meant that evil would be defeated. See 08.06.08.
- Healing a person who was born blind. It was for this reason that Mary said, after Lazarus died, “Couldn’t He who opened the blind man’s eyes also have kept this man from dying?” That was not just a passing statement, but a reflection on the messianic miracles that Jesus performed. See 11.02.21.
Amazingly, the Essenes believed in a fourth messianic miracle: to raise the dead to life. Of the thousands of Dead Sea Scroll fragments is the famous Messianic Apocalypse (4Q521) that states the messiah will raise the dead to life.
Jesus healed many in order to reveal His power and authority over demons and illnesses. As was previously stated, while Jewish exorcisms involved magical formulas, Jesus cast out demons simply with His word. But as was repeatedly demonstrated, the performance of the messianic miracles also revealed the spiritual blindness of so many. Throughout Scripture sin is often described as moral blindness and the deliverance from sin is described as a removal of this blindness. To say that Jesus is the proverbial “light of the world” has more to do with spiritual blindness than it does with physical blindness, although He brings sight to the physical and spiritual realms.
Video Insert >
06.03.08.V The Mystery of the Three Messianic Miracles. Professor John Metzger discusses the three Messianic miracles that the Jews of the Inter-Testamental Period believed the Messiah would be able to perform.
Since many rabbis had taught for centuries that the messiah would perform these messianic miracles; Jesus did not have to say, “I am the Messiah.” He demonstrated His Messiahship! To make a messianic declaration would have invited a catastrophic Roman response. Rather, He permitted the people to reach that conclusion by themselves. Not only was Jesus One of gentle authority, but when He healed, the audience reflected upon one of the names of God – Jehovah Rapha – our Lord who is our Healer.
06.03.08.Q4 How did the Psalms of Solomon influence people?
The Psalms of Solomon was one of the most influential books that persuaded popular opinion in the first century. This scroll was written by a Pharisee after the Roman invasion in 63 B.C., most likely between the years 40 and 30 B.C. Its significance lies in the sections that are reflective of messianic anticipations. Yet the subject of a person coming with a messianic title or being identified as the Messiah/Christ or Anointed One/Son of David/Redeemer, was considerably complex because various religious sects had numerous, and sometimes, conflicting opinions. The Pharisees and many orthodox Jews believed that Divine punishment was upon them (as demonstrated by Roman occupation) because of their sins (their acceptance of Greek culture). The Psalms promised them victory and restoration over the occupying enemy. It is a literary style typical of some Old Testament books.
A copy of this book was most certainly in the hands of the Romans, as they paid Jewish spies handsomely for any information that might lead to a revolt. It was especially troublesome because it identified and cursed them as being the “Gentile foreigners” (2:2), the “lawless one” (17:11) and it encouraged Jews to pray to God to bring forth a “Son of David” (17:21) to rule over Israel. Therefore, the Romans associated anyone with any of these titles as being worthy of immediate death, especially since there were some thirteen rebellions against them between the years 63 B.C. and A.D. 70. In light of the political-social tensions, the following passages clarify why Jesus often told the people He healed to be quiet and not tell others of the miracle they received:
Gentile foreigners went up to your place of sacrifice;
they arrogantly trampled (it) with their sandals.
Because the sons of Jerusalem defiled the sanctuary of the Lord,
they were profaning the offerings of God with lawless acts…
The daughters of Jerusalem were available to all, according to your judgments,
because they defiled themselves with improper intercourse.
Psalms of Solomon 2:2-3, 11
The lawless one laid waste our land, so that no one inhabited it;
they massacred young and old and children at the same time…
See, Lord, and raise up for them their king,
the Son of David, to rule over your servant Israel in
a time known to you, O God.
Undergird him with the strength to destroy the unrighteous rulers;
to purge Jerusalem from Gentiles who trample her to destruction;
In wisdom and in righteousness to drive out the sinners from the inheritance.
To smash the arrogance of sinners like a potter’s jar;
To shatter all their substance with an iron rod;
to destroy the unlawful nation with the word of his mouth
At his warning the nations will flee from his presence;
and he will condemn sinners by the thoughts of their hearts.
Psalms of Solomon 17:11, 21-25
The writer continues…
And he will have Gentile nations serving him under his yoke,
and he will glorify the Lord in (a place) prominent (above) the whole earth.
And he will purge Jerusalem
(and make it) holy as it was even from the beginning,
(For) nations to come from the ends of the earth to see his glory (Isa. 55:5),
to bring as gifts her children who had been driven out,
And to see the glory of the Lord
with which God has glorified her.
And he will be a righteous king over them, taught by God.
There will be no unrighteousness among them in his days,
for all shall be holy (Jer. 23:5),
and the king shall be the Lord Messiah.
Psalms of Solomon 17:26-32
Some historians believe the Psalms were used in liturgy since the messianic feelings are so intense, especially since the book contains eighteen psalms that are reflective of the Eighteen Benedictions. It clearly elevated feelings of national independence. Due to its popularity it is understandable that the common people and the Pharisees asked each other, “Have the [Jewish] authorities concluded that he is the Christ?” (Jn. 7:26). It is also understandable why Jesus rebuked them for shouting “You are the son of God” (Lk. 4:41). In the Passion Week, the Jewish leaders were in terror when Jesus rode into Jerusalem and they heard the crowds shouting “Hosanna to the Son of David” (Mt. 21:9) and “Blessed is the king who comes in the name of the Lord” (Lk. 19:38; Jn 12:13). John adds the phrase “Blessed is the King of Israel” (Jn. 12:13). These terms as well as the phrase “hosanna,” had clear messianic nationalistic overtones.
The Jewish people were not alone in their messianic anticipation. As previously stated, many people groups throughout the ancient Middle East were expecting a political-military leader. The Samaritans were expecting a messiah (Jn. 4) known as the Taheb, as were the Parthians (see the account of the magi; 04.04.06-07). The Essenes, descendants of the Zadokite priesthood, could not distinguish the differences between the Hebrew prophecies of the humble servant messiah and the one who would be a military leader (02.01.06). Hence, they concluded there were two messiahs coming – one who would be the son of David and would overthrow the Roman Empire and the other who would be the son of Aaron and would cleanse the temple of its corrupted religious aristocrats (see 02.01.06). The only people who did not want a messiah were the temple elite and Romans, who every few years were tormented by a Jewish fanatic who thought he was the messiah.
But no one in their wildest imagination ever dreamed the messiah who would be like Jesus. Therefore, Jesus needed time to reveal His identity, teach the people about the Kingdom of God, and slowly instruct them so their preconceived ideas would change. They needed time to think through the miracles they witnessed. That is why He told them not to tell others what they saw, which suggested they needed to think about what they witnessed.
The Roman Empire at this time enjoyed Pax Romana, even though it was at the end of the Roman sword. However, in the little Jewish provinces, there was constant threat of rebellion for freedom, especially in Jerusalem. Many had their hopes escalated when they saw Jesus performing miracles, believing that anyone who could do such wonderful acts of kindness could also bring freedom to their nation. However, the Hellenists, leading Pharisees, the Sadducees, the Herodians, some scribes and elders, felt threatened by the Miracle Worker and desired to maintain a friendship with the Romans as not to lose the wealth and power.
. Lang, Know the Words of Jesus. 64-67.
. Vincent, Word Studies in the New Testament. 1:300; Vine, “Leprosy.” Vine’s Complete Expository Dictionary. 2:364.
. https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/?shva=1#inbox/136f8c38200c05dd Retrieved April 28, 2012.
. This is an argument from silence and, therefore, weak. However, the fact remains that there is not a single healing of leprosy recorded among the Jewish people prior to the advent of Jesus.
. Some scholars argue that Miriam was the only one healed of leprosy, since the Israelites left Sinai in Numbers 10:12 and Miriam was healed at Hazeroth in Numbers 12.
. Research on the “Messianic Miracles” is credited to Dr. Arnold Fruchtenbaum, a Messianic scholar and director of Ariel Ministries of San Antonio, Texas. For more information on his excellent scholarship, see http://ariel.org/. Retrieved September 26, 2013. See the related video 06.03.08.V below. See also Fruchtenbaum, Messianic Miracles. 4.
. Richardson, “Heal, Healing, Health.” 103-04.
. There were four kinds of people that were considered as good as dead, and it was believed that in all four situations their situation was a divine judgment. They were the blind, the leper, the poor, and the childless.
. Barclay, “Matthew.” 1:297.
. Lev. 13:46; Num. 5:2-4; 2 Kg. 7:3.
. 2 Ch. 26:21; 2 Kg. 15:5.
. The Persians, like the Egyptians, worshiped the sun god.
. Lightfoot, A Commentary on the New Testament from the Talmud and Hebraica. 2:160.
. Babylonian Talmud, Berakoth 5b.
. Mishnah, Tohoroth 14:11.
. Edersheim, The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah. 341.
. Boring, Berger, and Colpe, eds. Hellenistic Commentary to the New Testament. 63.
. Wessel, “Mark.” 8:630.
. A leper who has been healed was often not called “healed,” but “cleansed” because the disease was symbolic of sin.
. Richardson, “Heal, Healing, Health.” 103-04.
. Babylonian Talmud, Seder Mo’ed Pesahim 67a-b.
. For further study, see messianic scholar Arnold G. Fruchtenbaum, Messianic Miracles. Tustin, CA: Ariel Ministries, 1983.
. When the New Testament writers used terms such as “testimony” or “bore witness” or “I have seen and testify,” these are statements of legal terminology. These statements were common in Roman, Greek, and Jewish cultures whereby the author placed himself under an oath concerning the truthfulness of the statement made. Bookman, When God Wore Sandals. CD Trac 5.
. Wessel, “Mark.” 8:630.
. Parenthesis by Danby, ed., Mishnah; See also Babylonian Talmud, Berakoth 5b.
. Kindly note, as previously stated, that the lower case “m” is sometimes used for “messiah” because the Jews did not believe the messiah would be diVine, See also Alan Richardson, “Heal, Healing, Health.” 103-04.
. For further study, see Messianic scholar Arnold G. Fruchtenbaum, Messianic Miracles. Tustin, CA: Ariel Ministries, 1983.
. Vine, “Dumb.” Vine’s Complete Expository Dictionary. 2:187.
. 1 Enoch 55:4; Jubilees 23:29; Testament of Simeon 6:6; Testament of Judah 25:3; Testament of Moses 10:1, and the Testament of Solomon 20:16-17. See also Matthew 9:32-34; 08.06.08.
. Fruchtenbaum, The Jewish Foundation of the Life of Messiah: Instructor’s Manual. Class 7, page 13, and Class 10, pages9-11; Research on the “Messianic Miracles” is credited to Dr. Arnold Fruchtenbaum, a Messianic scholar and director of Ariel Ministries of San Antonio, Texas. For more information on his excellent scholarship, see http://ariel.org/. Retrieved September 26, 2013. See also 06.03.08.V (Video), 06.01.03 as well as the comparison of Dead Sea Scroll fragments 4Q278 and 4Q521 with Luke 4:16-30 at 06.02.02; Fruchtenbaum, Messianic Miracles. 4; Fischer, The Gospels in Their Jewish Context. (Lecture on CD/MP3). Week 10, Session 2.
. See John 9:1-12; 11.02.21 and John 11:1-37 at 12.03.10.
. For more information, see 08.05.04.Q1 “What is the miracle or mystery of Dead Sea Scroll 4Q521?”
. Tobit 5:7-8; Josephus, Antiquities 8.2.5 (45-49).
. Deut. 28:29; Isa. 59:10; Job 12:25; Zeph. 1:17; See “Sin” in Appendix 26.
. Isa. 16:18; 43:8; Eph. 1:8; Mt. 15:14.
. See comments by Rabbi John Fischer in 10.01.28.V where he discusses two unique healing methods of blind men.
. See “Jesus, the Fulfiller of Selected Names of God” in Appendix 32 for additional attributes.
. The book supposedly reflects the wisdom of Solomon, although the authorship is not identified. Therefore, it is in a category of Jewish writings known as the Pseudepigrapha. See 02.02.24 for more details.
. See the video 02.02.01.V “The Significance of Inter-Testamental Writings: By Dr. Douglas Finkbeiner.
. Some ancient writers use the term “Judea” in the broadest sense. Examples are found in Pliny the Elder, Natural History, 5.15.70; Strabo, Geographia, 16.4.21; and Dio Sassius, Roman History, 37.15.2.
. Cosby, Interpreting Biblical Literature. 285.
. See Appendix 25 for a listing of 1) false prophets who had messianic expectations and 2) a partial listing of revolts and social disturbances from 63 B.C. to A.D. 70.
. Charlesworth, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. 2:652.
. Charlesworth, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. 2:666-67.
. Charlesworth, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. 2:667-68. Additions for clarification within parenthesis by Charlesworth. The phrase “Lord Messiah,” is regarded by some scholars as a mistranslation from Lam. 4:20 (LXX). However, Charlesworth states that there is evidence in Greek and Syrian MSS for the rendering as shown.
. Moseley, Yeshua: A Guide to the Real Jesus and the Original Church. 102-03.
. See Appendix 18.
. The messianic title “Son of David” appears in the following three groups of passages in the gospels where it is always reflective of the Davidic Covenant: 1) In various healings by Jesus – Mt. 9:27; 12:23; 15:22; 20:30-31; Mk. 10:47-48; Lk. 18:38-39. 2) In connection of the harassment the religious leaders gave Jesus – Mt. 22:42-43, 45; Mk. 12:35, 37; Lk. 20:41, 44, and 3) The praise the crowds gave Jesus at His entry into Jerusalem – Mt. 21:9, 15; Mk. 11:10. See Rogers, “The Davidic Covenant in the Gospels,” Bibliotheca Sacra. Part 1 of 2. 158-78.
. Blizzard, “Judaism – Part 1” Yavo Digest 1:5, 8; Guignebert, The Jewish World in the Time of Jesus. 196; See 06.01.03.
. Possibly the most famous messianic fanatic was Simon bar Kochba who was responsible for the uprising of A.D.133-35, which lead to the second Roman destruction of Jerusalem and dispersion of all Jews from Jerusalem. However, there has always been a Jewish presence somewhere in the Holy Land from the time of Joshua until today.
. Lee, The Galilean Jewishness of Jesus. 72-73; Mellowes and Cran, Executive Producers. From Jesus to Christ: The First Christians. (DVD). Part 1.
. Lang, Know the Words of Jesus. 423.
. The provinces of Perea, Galilee, and Judah each had their own Roman appointee, who served as a puppet monarch under Rome.